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Comparison of Force-Time Metrics Between Countermovement Vertical Jump With and Without an Arm Swing

The International Journal of Strength and Conditioning is the world's first in S&C and Sport Science to be 'Diamond' Open Access. We have recently published a new article by Cabarkapa, D., Philipp, N., Cabarkapa, D., Eserhaut, D., & Fry, A. (2023) titled, "Comparison of Force-Time Metrics Between Countermovement Vertical Jump With and Without an Arm Swing in Professional Male Basketball Players"


With technological developments over the last decade, a wide range of countermovement vertical jump (CMJ) force-time metrics can be derived from commercially available portable force plate systems. However, it should be noted that how the test is performed can have a substantial impact on the outcome of the assessment. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to determine differences in biomechanical variables between CMJ with and without an arm swing in a cohort of elite athletes. Ten professional male basketball players volunteered to participate in the present study. Following a standardized warm-up procedure, athletes stepped on a uni-axial force plate sampling at 1000 Hz and performed three CMJ without arm swing (i.e., hands on the hips) followed by three CMJ with an arm swing (i.e., arms positioned slightly in the front of the body with elbows flexed at a 90-degree angle). To minimize the possible influence of fatigue, each jump was separated by a 15-30 s rest interval. The findings of the present study indicate phase- specific differences in multiple force-time metrics between the two CMJ testing modalities. While having greater eccentric duration, CMJ with an arm swing had lower eccentric braking and deceleration rate of force development and lower eccentric peak force when compared to CMJ without an arm swing. During the concentric phase of the jump, concentric duration, impulse, peak velocity, and peak power were significantly greater in favor of CMJ with an arm swing. Also, despite longer contraction time, incorporating an arm swing resulted in greater vertical jump heights. Overall, these data describe the CMJ performance of professional male basketball players and provide helpful information for practitioners when designing assessment protocols to monitor athletes’ neuromuscular performance.

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