top of page

Influence of Tactical Formation on Average and Peak Demands of Elite Soccer Match-Play

The International Journal of Strength and Conditioning is the world's first in S&C and Sport Science to be 'Diamond' Open Access. We have recently published a new article by Alexander Calder and Tim Gabbett, titled "Influence of Tactical Formation on Average and Peak Demands of Elite Soccer Match-Play"


Global Positioning Systems (GPS) have provided practitioners with information on the activity profiles of team-sport players. There is no available literature identifying the average or peak physical demands of elite soccer in the USA. This investigation aims to quantify the activity profiles and most demanding passages of elite soccer competition within different positions, periods, and tactical formations. Activity profiles were captured from 449 whole-period, and 661 peak-period data from 24 field players across a 31-game Major League Soccer season. Total distance covered (metres), average speed (m·min-1), and number of acceleration and deceleration (m·s-2) efforts were used to comprise whole-period profiles. Peak values for speed (m·min-1) were obtained by using a moving-average approach for durations lasting 1, 2, 3, 5, and 10 minutes. Across all positions the 4-2-3-1, 3-4-3, and 4-3-3 formations showed a decrease in average speed between the first and second halves. The 4-3-1-2 yielded greatest whole-period accelerations and decelerations for full backs, and overall distance covered and average speed for strikers. Most peak intensities were observed in the first half of match-play, with attacking midfielders and strikers demonstrating their greatest activity during the first half of a 4-3-1-2 formation. Altering tactical formations results in different physical outputs for all positional groups. Depending on the formation implemented, positional groups resulted in differences, with physical outputs, between halves during match-play.

Click the link below to read the full article:




bottom of page